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A Great and Just Philippine Judge – and a Defender of the Constitution

Included in “The Borromeo Family of Cebu” by Marc E. Nonnenkamp (ISBN 978-1460908082 now available on through CreateSpace for $17.99 paperback and for $9.99 as an Amazon Kindle e-book).  This book is on the Amazon “Bestsellers” list in the USA (top 3 percent of retail products) and is also available at Barnes & Noble in both paperback and electronic NOOKbook editions.  A January 31, 2014 article in “The Philippine Star-Freeman” newspaper from Manila commemorates Judge Borromeo’s honesty and integrity as a public official upon the 91st anniversary of his tragic assassination:  The article has 9,119 “Shares” and “Likes” on Facebook, Twitter and Googleplus as of May 30, 2017 – thank you so much for interest.

My maternal grandfather is one of the most famous provincial judges in the history of the Philippines, due to a landmark case in the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands (Borromeo vs. Mariano) which he won in January 1921 two years before he was murdered in January 1923. He defended the legal independence of the judicial branch of government in the face of a hostile insular legislature.  This article has received more than 22,342 page visits since November 2007 – thank you very much for your interest!

Note: we recently posted photos (in our separate photo section) showing the new monument in honor of Judge Andrés Borromeo, located at Borromeo Plaza in downtown Cebu City, the Philippines.  These pictures were taken in May 2008, upon the occasion of the Borromeo Family Reunion in Cebu City.  More than 100 family members attended, and we had the occasion to see about 20 more relatives in Manila later during our trip.

Mein Großvater mütterlicherseits war zu seiner Zeit einer der berühmtesten Richter der Philippinen.  Als Landesrichter von Surigao und Agusan im Nordosten von Mindanao (1914-1923), hat Andrés Borromeo y Reynes (1880-1923) sich gegen die übermäßige und fast grenzlose politische Korruption in den Philippinen aufgelehnt. Er hat sich auch deswegen für die Unabhängigkeit des Justizwesens eingesetzt.  Die sognannten nationalen “Helden” der Philippinen waren zum großen Teil nicht sehr aufrichtig und sehr korrupt.  Die erste große politische Partei in der Geschichte der Philippinen, die “Nationalistische Partei,” war auch sehr korrupt. Diese unehrlichen Menschen (hauptsächlich sehr wohlhabende Freimaurer) haben das Land zwischen 1907 und 1941 politisch beherrscht. Von 1916 bis 1923 hat sich mein Großvater, der Richter Andrés Borromeo y Reynes, der “Nationalistischen Partei,” die Regierung von Surigao und Agusan im Nordosten von Mindanao, entgegengesetzt.  Er hat dieser Bewegung viel von ihrer Macht und Einfluß entnommen, einer der Hauptgründe weil er dann am 3. Januar 1923 einem Attentat zum Opfer fiel.

Unveiling of the Second Monument to Judge Andres Borromeo (May 24, 2008)

The first monument to the legacy of my maternal grandfather Judge Andres Borromeo y Reynes (1880-1923) was dedicated at the Surigao City wharf in 1927. This same monument was moved to the Palace of Justice in the City of Surigao on May 19, 1993. On May 24, 2008, a second monument was dedicated to Judge Andres Borromeo at the Borromeo Plaza on Andres Borromeo Street in Cebu City. The Borromeo Plaza is a 3-phase commercial complex owned, developed and managed by the Borromeo Group of Companies (incorporated on February 8, 1933). Andres Borromeo Streets in both Cebu City and in Surigao City were named after the tragic assassination in 1923. What follows is my own tribute to my late maternal grandfather.

Note: The Cebu “Sun Star” carried an article about the new monument on June 12, 2008.

Public Speech of Marc Evan Borromeo Nonnenkamp (May 24, 2008)

I am Marc Evan Borromeo Nonnenkamp, the youngest of Judge Andres Borromeo’s 9 grandchildren.

I also wish to thank the many distinguished guests and supporters here today, including the Honorable Michael Rama, Vice Mayor of Cebu City, my uncle Dr. Rodolfo Borromeo Herrera, President of the Borromeo Brothers Estate, Incorporated, my cousin Mr. Maxcy Borromeo, General Manager of the Borromeo Brothers Estate, Incorporated, my parents, my cousin Socorro Borromeo Atega, the ICM Sisters, my relatives in the Borromeo family, the people of Cebu and the Filipino people.

Judge Andres Borromeo, or “Lolo Ating,” as I know him, was the eldest of 9 siblings, my maternal grandfather, a devoted husband, the father of 8 children, a great Philippine judge and a defender of the constitution of the former United States Territory of the Philippine Islands.

Lolo Ating served as Judge of the Court of First Instance for the Provinces of Surigao and Agusan in Mindanao from July 1914 until his untimely demise in January of 1923.

Due to his 1921 victory in the landmark Philippine Supreme Court case known as “Borromeo vs. Mariano,” he became popularly known as “The Fighting Judge.” In this famous case, which has since been taught to all Philippine students of law, the legal independence of the judicial branch of government was preserved.

Judge Andres Borromeo defended the judicial branch of government in the face of a hostile insular legislature. During the period of Philippine self-government from 1907 until 1923, it became the practice of Filipino politicians to assign a Judge of the Court of First Instance to try a particular case. In the case of my grandfather, the issue was election fraud. He failed bend to the will of the corrupt body politic of his time.

The just judge who preserved honest elections in Surigao and Agusan was to have been appointed to the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands in 1923. Unfortunately, this was too much for the powers that were. While on holiday in Manila in January of 1923, my grandfather was felled by an assassin’s bullet. The killers tried to kill both my grandfather and his younger brother Captain Jose Ubaldo Borromeo, but my grandfather felled one of the would-be assassins and thereby saved his younger brother’s life.

Lolo Ating’s self-sacrifice and the ideals for which he fought are as meaningful today as they were 85 years ago. They are as much a part of the human condition today as they were for Adam and Eve more than 6 Millennia ago.

The issue is one of justice – a justice for which every human being who ever has lived has already been judged, and for which every human being now alive will be judged. When we transgress against this justice, we not merely hurt others and the world in which we live, but we place our own eternal inheritance at risk.

May the memory of Judge Andres Borromeo always be with us, and may he inspire each and every one of us always to do better.

I thank all of you very much for attending the official dedication of this monument to Judge Andres Borromeo.

Historical Background to the Threat against the Philippine Judiciary

During the period of Philippine self-government but before the establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth (from the Jones Act of 1916 until 1935), it was the practice of Filipino politicians (i.e., those from the majority & ruling leftist Nacionalista Party) to assign a Judge of the First Instance to try a particular case. During this period the Court of First Instance was the equivalent of a present-day State or Provincial Supreme Court. The intimation that a certain kind of verdict (i.e., favorable to the Nacionalista Party and its alleged interests) was wanted was not lost on the judge. It remained for merely three Filipino jurists to furnish inspiring examples of judicial rectitude. Judge Andrés Borromeo y Reynes (1880-1923) made his name famous in the celebrated Philippine Supreme Court decision of January 1921.

Andrés Borromeo had been duly appointed and commissioned Judge of the First Instance of the 24th Judicial District comprising the Provinces of Surigao and Agusan in 1914 (population of 2,8 million people in 2007). For six years he acted as judge in those provinces, but through his unbending character offended the local politicians. In effect, he ruled against the majority Nacionalista Party in election fraud cases. Accordingly, he was appointed to another district, an appointment which he declined to accept. The Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands, to the amazement of many, sustained the Fighting Judge, as Judge Andrés Borromeo had come to be called, on the ground that a Judge of the Court First Instance can be made a judge of another district only with his consent. In its broader aspects the decision rested on the fundamental conception of an independent and incorruptible judicial branch of government.

Supreme Court Case: Borromeo vs. Mariano (January 1921)

The ruling in the Borromeo vs. Mariano Case (January 1921) did not sit well with the Philippine Legislature, which was itself controlled by the Nacionalista Party from 1916 to 1943. So a law was passed which provided for a lottery of judicial positions every 5 years. Again another fearless judge (Pedro Concepcion), was found to test the constitutionality of the law. The Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands held the law invalid.

Judge Andrés Borromeo y Reynes (1880-1923): A Martyr for Justice

The untimely demise of Don Andrés Borromeo was mourned by the entire Philippines. Palma, Judge George Malcolm, the Free Press Editor, and other giants in Philippine letters, stung by so inestimable a loss, penned literary gems to laud the great Filipino jurist.

Don Andrés Borromeo was an institution himself. Fearless and stout willed, he was a genuine apostle of justice which he admirably kept inviolate through countless vicissitudes. Without thought of reward, he fought for the independence of the judiciary. He died with the grieving voice of the whole nation chanting of his uprightness, sending forth a conglomerate echo in the august hall of fame.

He obtained his secondary education in the College of San Carlos Borromeo in Cebu City (the oldest university in the Philippines), and finished law in the Escuela de Derecho (School of Law) at the College of Santo Tomas in Manila (founded by the Spaniards in 1601).  He passed the bar examination in March 1903 and in April of that same year he started practicing his profession. The alertness he displayed evoked the respect of higher authorities, and in 1905 he became Deputy Fiscal (Deputy Prosecutor) to the then Provincial & Auxiliary Fiscal (Chief Prosecutor) of Cebu and Negros Oriental, Sergio Osmeña, Sr.

Sergio Osmeña, Sr. was born out of wedlock to a prominent Chinese-Mestizo family of Cebu City in 1878.  He graduated from the Escuela de Derecho (School of Law) at the University of Santo Tomas in Manila in 1899.  In 1899, he returned to Cebu to establish the newspaper “El Nuevo Dia” (“the new day” in English).  He also served in the administration of Cebu Provincial Governor Juan Climaco, another Chinese-Mestizo who held office from 1899 to 1904.  Osmeña served as Provincial Fiscal (“Chief Prosecutor” in English) of Cebu Province from 1904 to 1907, at which time he was elected to the brand new Philippine National Assembly.  He was also elected Speaker of the Philippine National Assembly, becoming the most prominent Filipino politician of the time – until he was eventually eclipsed by Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina.  The “Partido Nacionalista” (“Nationalist Pary” in English) of Osmeña and Quezon won 58 out of 80 seats in 1907.  At this time, a mere 3% of the Filipino population could legally vote, they being literate males who owned property.  The primary opposition “Partido Progresista” (“Progressive Party” in English) won just 16 out of 80 seats in 1907.

In 1906, Andrés Borromeo y Reynes was duly appointed Provincial Fiscal of Bohol. His designation as Cebu’s Provincial Fiscal was made in 1908.  Andrés Borromeo y Reynes (1880-1923) was appointed Judge of the Court of First Instance for the Provinces of Surigao and Agusan (in Northeastern Mindanao) on July 1, 1914. His problems with the Nacionalista Party began in 1915, when he ruled against them in electoral fraud cases. The pro-Nacionalista judge who opposed Andrés Borromeo in the landmark case at the Supreme Court of the Philipines (Borromeo vs. Mariano, January 1921) was one Francisco Mariano. Mariano was appointed Provincial Fiscal (chief prosecutor) of Surigao, Agusan & Misamis in 1907. He was elected Governor of Surigao Province in 1916, an election in which the Partido Democrata contested the results in court and in which my grandfather ruled in favor of the minority Partido Democrata. Upon losing the Governorship of Surigao in 1919, Francisco Mariano was appointed Judge of the Court of First Instance in Mindanao-Sulu Province.  Francisco Mariano’s top crony was one Manuel Llorca, born in Manila on April 20, 1886. He was elected the Nacionalista Party Governor of Leyte Province on September 1, 1905 and served as the Chief Clerk of Baguio and Bulacan Provinces from 1917 to 1918. He too was transferred to Surigao & Agusan in the Nacionalista Party vendetta against my maternal grandfather Andrés Borromeo. Other important opponents of my grandfather on the provincial level were the politician / jurist Ricardo Gonzalez (born January 24, 1881 and an ally of the so-called Filipino Nationalists opposing the Americans & my great-grandfather Filomeno Rallos from 1899 to 1902), the Nacionalista Party Senator Filemon Sotto and his brother the newspaper editor Vicente Sotto. The Sotto brothers were related to my grandfather by marriage through the extended family of my maternal grandmother Anunciacion Rallos de Borromeo (1885-1938). Filemon Sotto was married to a first cousin of my grandmother named Carmen Fadullon Rallos Sotto; he and his wife never had any children.

These men (Francisco Mariano, Manuel Llorca, Ricardo Gonzalez, Filemon Sotto and Vicente Sotto) were all Nacionalista Party cronies of Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, the leader of the Nacionalista Party of the Philippines.  Quezon was born to a Spanish-Mestizo family in Tayabas Province on Luzon in 1878.  He graduated from the University of Santo Tomas in Manila in 1898.  His father (who was born in Spain) and younger brother had been slain by Filipino nationalist partisans, when their family had supported continued Spanish rule in the Philippines.  Manuel Luis Quezon amazingly then switched sides and became a Filipino nationalist guerilla himself from 1899 until 1903, during the war against the United States.  After his capture by the Americans in 1903, he became the protege of a number of American Army and government officials (including Colonel James G. Harbord, Major Harry H. Bandholtz, and U.S. District Judge Paul W. Linebarger) – in spite of having been indicted for 9 felony crimes, including the rape of a girl, armed assault and suppressing evidence in a pending criminal case.  In a most ironic gesture, both Bandholtz and Linebarger saved Quezon’s skin by having him made Provincial Fiscal (“Chief Prosector” in English) of Tayabas Province – in effect making an alleged criminal the highest-ranking legal official in state government. Quezon was then elected governor of Tayabas Province in 1906, during an election campaign in which Major Harry H. Bandholtz smeared Quezon’s opponents.  Quezon’s strongest opponent was an American Manila newspaper editor named Francis J. Berry, who was the victim of this smear campaign.  Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina became one of the non-voting Philippine Representatives to the United States Congress in Washington, D.C. from May 14, 1910 until 1916.  He then became President of the brand new Philippine Senate from 1916 until 1935, at which time he was elected President of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands (a position he held until he fled from the Japanese invaders in 1941).

The Philippines were unfortunately subject to the many whims of domestic American politics.  Some Americans wanted to keep the islands as part of their Imperialist policy ambitions, or as an economic “springboard” into Mainland China.  Others wanted the Philippines as a ready (and protected) market for American exports, or as a geographical bulwark against Japanese expansion.  Still others did not want the islands, because they were so-called “anti-Imperialists.”  Many white American racists did not want the Philippines, because they did not want Filipinos to emigrate to the USA.  In general, the Republican Party wanted to keep the Philippines, and the Democratic Party wanted to get out of the Philippines.  The Republican Party controlled the White House from 1897 until 1913, with a Democratic administration occupying the White House from 1913 until 1921 (the Presidency of Woodrow Wilson).  During this time, the so-called “Jones Law” was passed in the U.S. Congress, which granted the Philippines increased self-rule (autonomy), paved the way to eventual Commonwealth status and then “independence.”  With Republicans back in the White House from 1921 until 1933, the move to Philippine independence was suddenly slowed – which brings us to the internal Philippine power struggle of 1921-1923.  US President Warren Harding named fellow Republican General Leonard Wood as the new Governor-General of the Philippine Islands in 1921.  Philippine Senate President Manuel Luis Quezon was determined to use this new phase in Philippine history to replace Sergio Osmeña, Sr. of Cebu City and become the most powerful politician in the Philippines – which he unfortunately did.

Andrés Borromeo was the sole Philippine Judge to oppose the electoral corruption of the Nacionalista Party, whereby the Philippines were made into a de facto one party state. By late 1922, Andrés Borromeo had cost the Nacionalista Party their “control” over Cebu Province, Bohol Province, Surigao Province and Agusan Province. In so doing, he caused them to redirect their efforts and thus indirectly weakened them as well in Leyte Province, Baguio Province and Bulacan Province.

Many people who knew my grandfather believed he would have eventually opposed Manuel Luis Quezon for the Presidency of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands in 1935, and that he was one of the few right-of-center leaders in the Philippines who could have defeated the leftist Quezon. The Partido Democrata of Philippine conservatives was a liberal party in the European tradition (fiscally conservative and in defense of individual liberty), thus explaining its affinity to the Republican Party of the USA. It grew out of the Partido Federalista (1900-1907), just as the Republican Party of the USA grew out of the Federalist and Whig Parties that preceded it.

As a footnote, I will add that Sergio Osmeña, Sr. became the 3rd President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines Islands from 1945 until 1946 (immediately prior to Philippine independence being granted by the United States). He was named a Godfather to my aunt Rosario Rallos Borromeo upon her birth in 1905.

I wish to express special gratitude to former Philippine Supreme Court Justice George A. Malcolm, former Vice-Governor of the Philippine Islands Joseph Ralston Hayden and to Mr. D.R. Williams, author of “The United States and the Philippines,” without whom I would not have known as much about my late maternal grandfather Judge Andrés Borromeo.

What follows are selected newspaper articles on the life and times of Judge Andrés Borromeo

Judge Borromeo of Surigao resists pressure (from “The Manila Times” on June 23, 1921 – by Raul Ingles)

Judge Andrés Borromeo, called the “fighting judge” of Surigao, formally protested in a memorandum to acting Governor General of the Philippine Islands Charles E. Yeater the “unjust humiliations and attacks” to which he had been subjected by the Surigao provincial officials as well as by certain people occupying high positions in the insular government of the Philippine Islands.

He said that he had been the object of machination and conspiracy and cited a number of instances to support this charge.

“What confidence can the citizens of a country have if they see conspicuous personages of the government despise the judicial functionaries for the simple reason that the latter don’t always decide cases in compliance with their wishes?” asked Judge Borromeo.

He said that if officials of the executive branch of government, instead of following out the order of the courts of justice, are the first to defy them, then he doubted if the people could be made to respect law and order and have confidence in the courts.

Judge Andrés Borromeo (translated into English by my aunt Maria Benita Borromeo Atega from Wednesday, November 23, 1921 edition of the newspaper “Bag-ong Kusog” or “New Strength”)

Everyone knows him. He is the man who has been persecuted by the political powers that be in the city and the province of Surigao. This is because he truly upholds civic valor, due to his courage, because he is not afraid of those who persecute him, and because he has defeated his opponents in the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands. Recently, he made a major revelation and thereby launched a major attack against the Partido Nacionalista Senator Filemon Sotto in the “Neuva Fuerza / New Strength” newspaper.

Note: Senator Filemon Sotto and his brother newspaper publisher Vicente Sotto were related to my maternal grandfather Judge Andrés Borromeo by my grandfather’s marriage to my maternal grandmother Anunciacion Rallos de Borromeo. The Sotto brothers were married to two of her second cousins.

More newspaper articles upon the tragic Assassination of Judge Andrés Borromeo

Editorial on “Judge Borromeo” (translated into English by my aunt Maria Benita Borromeo Atega from the Friday, January 15, 1923 edition of “Bag-ong Kusog” or “New Strength”)

The sudden death of Judge Andrés Borromeo of Surigao is painful not merely to his family and friends but also to the whole Philippine nation. No civic-minded person, no Filipino whose heart burns with the ardent desire for the welfare of his native land does not feel sad upon the death of Judge Andrés Borromeo.

At this time in history, when those with sharp minds and those who are brave enough, those who have the valor to fight for the right of every Filipino are greatly needed, there is nobody who does not regret the untimely demise of just such a Filipino who is learned, brave and upright.

Because of his being a faithful follower of the tenets of truth and because of his unique bravery to fight against the most powerful and crooked politicians, Judge Andrés Borromeo achieved the cleanest judicial record and attained the fame of being the sole judge who was not afraid of anything or anyone when he was in the right.

The merit and righteousness of Judge Andrés Borromeo was acknowledged by all. This acknowledgement was the reason why every newspaper throughout the entire Philippine Islands published praise on the life of the deceased Judge Andrés Borromeo who is the pride of the Filipino people. This is the reason why all the important public officials in Manila sympathized with his grieving family. And this is the reason why thousands upon thousands of Cebuanos met his mortal remains at the Cebu City wharf this morning.

This is also the reason why we now join with the immense sorrow felt by the Judge’s widow, his six surviving children, the siblings and the relatives of the illustrious descendent.

The body of our great friend is now dead, but the memory of his honest life will forever glow and enlighten the future of the Filipino nation and people.

The Death of Judge Borromeo (translated into English by my aunt Maria Benita Borromeo Atega from the newspaper “Bag-ong Kusog” or “New Strength”)

Because we were unable to come out with our publication last week, we are now going to tell the story of the demise of our beloved friend Judge Borromeo for those of our readers who are not yet aware of the circumstances behind his death.

After dinner on January 2nd of this new year 1923, Judge Borromeo, Captain José Ubaldo Borromeo (his younger brother and at present head of the Manila detectives) and Mr. Rogers of the Philippine Free Press rode in an automobile to Cavite Boulevard (since renamed Dewey Boulevard and then Roxas Boulevard) near Luneta.

When they reached this destination, Publisher Rogers noticed a suspicious looking car parked at the side of the road where there were four persons about to board it. Because he suspected the movements of these persons, Rogers told the two Borromeo brothers about this. They came to a stop, at which time Captain José Borromeo stepped outside of their car. Judge Andrés Borromeo and Publisher Rogers then proceeded and turned at Remedios Street, and drove near the suspicious looking car which was parked on Cavite Boulevard. After leaving their car, Captain José Borromeo immediately went up to the suspicious looking men and spoke to one of them who was none other than ex-Captain Felix Nave of the Philippine Constabulary, whom Captain José Ubaldo Borromeo knew to have a record as a smuggler. After Captain Borromeo asked Nave why he was in that particular place at that time, Nave just said that his wife was ill and that he was waiting for another person to fetch him. Captain Borromeo then returned to the car where Judge Borromeo and Publisher Rogers were waiting. Felix Nave got into his own car and drove away.

At Carolina and Cartabitarte Streets, there was a security guard known as Clemente Rogue who saw another suspicious looking man wearing a jacket and carrying a gun. The security guard approached this man and why he had a gun. The shooting started, and Detective Rogue was hit in the thigh and fell to the ground. The man then hit detective Rogue and took his gun away from him. When Captain José Ubaldo Borromeo heard the shooting, he turned their car towards Cavite Boulevard. He brought the car to a halt, got out, and when he did so the same man who shot Detective Rogue shot at him. Fortunately, he ducked and therefore was not hit. When Judge Borromeo saw his brother being shot at by this man, he shot back at him. The man was hit by Judge Borromeo’s bullet and died instantly.

While the shooting continued, an accomplice of the dead smuggler slowly crept towards the rear of the car and shot at Judge Borromeo twice. The bullet hit Judge Borromeo in the side. When Captain José Ubaldo Borromeo and Publisher Rogers arrived, Judge Andrés Borromeo was already bleeding profusely. At once, they brought him to the Philippine General Hospital in Manila.

Due to the seriousness of his wounds, an operation was no longer possible in the judgement of the doctors present. They included Doctors Calderon, Stasford, Guazon and Angelo Borromeo, a second cousin to Judge Andrés Borromeo. Due to the terrible wounds he received during the gun battle, Judge Andrés Borromeo died.

Editorial on the Funeral of Judge Andrés Borromeo (translated into English by my aunt Maria Benita Borromeo Atega from the January 12, 1923 edition of “Bag-ong Kusog” or “New Strenth”)

The whole of Cebu pays homage to the remains of Judge Andrés Borromeo. Very sad was the arrival of the deceased – all the hearts were touched – many eyes were tearful.

The remains of Judge Andrés Borromeo are now here in Cebu. The ship “Luzon” which brought his body from Manila docked at the Cebu City wharf at 8:20 AM this morning. More than 5,000 Cebuanos met the remains of the well-known Judge, which were accompanied to Cebu by Supreme Court Judges Imperial and Harvey from Manila. (Note: 5,000 people in 1923 would be the equivalent of 172,000 people in 2017 due to the increase in the Philippine population since 1923).

Almost all of the big officials of Cebu were at the pier this morning to pay homage to the respected deceased Judge. Present were the honorable Judge Wislezenus, Abeto and De La Rama; Provincial Fiscals Ceneza and Noel, attorneys P. del Rosario, P. Gullas, M. Cuenco, E. Del Rosario, S. Kabajing, J. Veloso and others; Dean Mirasol of the University; Superintendent Beard; Collector Natividad; Commander Togle; President Abellana; honorable Dionisio Jakosalem; Engineer Segura; Treasurer Fabilla; Colonel Torres; Messers. J. Avila, J. Singson and many delegates of the Americans, Spaniards and Chinese; and delegates of the Cebu press. Also there were the company of constables, the municipal band and a platoon of police and the officers of the high school cadets.

At 8:30 AM the remains of Judge Borromeo in a beautiful coffin were taken by his three honorable brothers, Dr. Maximo Borromeo, Canuto Octavio Borromeo and Exequiel Borromeo from the cabin where it was aboard the ship and placed in a waiting funeral car. When the funeral procession began, the municipal band played a sorrowful funeral song. All present took their hats off as a sign of respect. How sad it was! When the remains were taken down from the ship, all the hearts of those who were met by the coffin and those who were watching were very touched, broke down and cried. Many tears flowed. The scene was very moving, especially when the beloved wife of the late Judge cried.

From the pier, the funeral entourage followed by around 4,000 people proceeded to his beautiful home in Cogon. There everyone was given a chance to view his remains.

The burial of Judge Borromeo will take place on Sunday afternoon. When the coffin will be laid in its beautiful tomb, a eulogy will be given by Judge Wislezenus, Father Cuenco and Attorney P. Gullas.

Eulogy by a Former Coworker

In early 2008, I received an e-mail from a gentleman in Madrid, Spain who happens to be interested in Philippine history. He shared with me an article written in the Spanish language in the Philippines in early 1923, shortly after the assassination of Judge Andrés Borromeo. Because I do not speak Spanish, the article was graciously translated into English by the widow of my mother’s first cousin Mario Neri Borromeo, Mrs. Carolina Mendiola Borromeo. The article is anonymous, but speaks for itself:

Andrés Borromeo: Father, Statesman and Judge

In the annals of Philippine history, Andrés Borromeo will always be considered as one whose name will be honored for his statesmanship and as one of the best judges in the judicial history of the Philippines. The following eulogy was given by one of his followers: “I feel it my bound duty to render honor to Andrés Borromeo, Judge of the Court of First Instance of Surigao and Agusan, in accordance with the crying need of the fraternity which wants to honor him with the dignity he deserves. It was in the month of January 1915 when I launched my legal career under his tutelage, working for him as a legal employee – an official of the Court of First Instance.

He treated me with affability, taking the utmost care to teach me all the ramifications of the legal profession without ever losing his personal dignity and respectability, always treating me with the best consideration because I was undergoing the learning process of all facets of the law of the land.

The longer I worked with him, the more he impressed me with his personal friendship, always showing respect for me as a brother of the legal profession. Judge Andrés Borromeo’s tragic death cut short both our friendship and our professional relationship.

I was always impressed by his fearless demeanor to uphold the law of the land, defying death in defense of legitimate and honest interests. As a judge, he earned the right to be elevated to the highest rank by virtue of his scholarship and fairness.

He has justifiably earned the highest honor among lawyers, judges, public defenders and all other public servants designed to uphold the law of the land. His fame reached many countries of the world – he was well known outside of the Philippines as well as within it. It was a well known fact that Judge Andrés Borromeo never hesitated to consult with fellow lawyers, soliciting their opinions, for or against the case he handled – to be absolutely sure that the truth would be served.

First and foremost, his primary objective was to uphold and defend the right of the common man. To Judge Andrés Borromeo, the law of the land was the supreme factor in deciding legal cases, as he devoted every single iota of his judicial expertise to defend whatever case was presented to him.

After working with him for two years from January 1915 to 1917, I found him to be the epitome of true manhood, both a fearless judge and a caring man who upheld the truth for both rich & poor, young & old, for both stranger & friend. This is the mark of a real judge. May the eternal soul of Judge Andrés Borromeo rest in peace.”

Genealogy and History of the Descendants of Judge Andrés Borromeo y Reynes (the Borromean branch of my First Degree Cousins)

Hier unten findet man der Stammbaum meiner unmittelbaren Familie, d.h. die Nachkommen von dem Richter (mein Großvater) Andrés Borromeo y Reynes (1880-1923) und meiner Großmutter Anunciacion Bonjoc Rallos de Borromeo (1885-1938).

The eight children of my maternal grandparents:

  1. Andrés Buenaventura Rallos      Borromeo, Jr.
  2. Buenaventura Rallos Borromeo
  3. Sister Rosario Rallos      Borromeo
  4. Sister Luz Caricia Rallos      Borromeo
  5. Fé Antonieta Margarita Rallos      Borromeo Querouz
  6. Jesus Edmundo Rallos Borromeo
  7. Maria Benita Rallos Borromeo      Atega
  8. Hermenegilda Amor Victoria      Rallos Borromeo Nonnenkamp

First Cousins

The children of my mother’s siblings listed above are thus my first degree cousins. Andrés Buenaventura Rallos Borromeo, Jr. (my “Tito Diding”) graduated from Cebu High School in 1922. He was appointed a government “Pensionado” upon the death of his father in 1923. He sailed to America with 15 fellow Filipino “Pensionados” (the self-named “Jeffersonian 16″) aboard the passenger liner “S.S. President” in September 1924 and graduated with a B.S.M.E. (Bachelor’s of Science Degree in Mechanical Engineering) from M.I,T, (the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in 1928. “Pensionados” were Philippine students with full government scholarships.  The “Pensionado” program was started by Philippine Director of Education David Barrows in October 1903, when the very first group of 100 Filipino students sailed to America to attend US colleges.  Barrows had been appointed to this position by William Howard Taft, the then Governor-General of the Philippine Islands.  Taft eventually became President of the United States, and a member of the U.S. Supreme Court thereafter.

Andrés Rallos Borromeo’s twin brother Buenaventura Rallos Borromeo died very shortly after birth in 1904.

Upon returning home, he served on the Board of Examiners for Mechanical Engineering. He subsequently founded the first natural gas company in the Philippines – Rockgas Inter-Island Gas Service, Inc., of which he was General Manager until his early death in 1948. He also served as a Director of the Borromeo Bros. Estate, Inc. from 1938 until his death in 1948. He was preceded in this position by his mother / my grandmother Anunciacion Rallos de Borromeo.

My “Tito Diding” had merely one child, who was my eldest first cousin Edmond Morrow Paterno Borromeo (June 2, 1942 to August 25, 1995). Edmond was born in Manila and spent much time growing up with his mother on the Island of Guam after my uncle Andrés Rallos Borromeo (1904-1948) died. Edmond was twice married, and had children from both his first and second wives. The children by his first wife Leila Paras Borromeo (now deceased) are Edmond Gerard “Gerry” Paras Borromeo and Eileen Marie Paras Borromeo. The children by Edmond’s second wife Evelyn Gonzaga Borromeo Cruz are Dionah Gonzaga Borromeo Killgore, Charles Edmond Gonzaga Borromeo and Clint Edward Gonzaga Borromeo. Gerry works as a professional nurse, and is married to Josephine Nucom To Borromeo (who works for Provident Financial Management in Los Angeles) and they have one daughter. Eileen is a married nurse living in Sacramento, California and has three children (Elyse, Luke and Emma); her husband is a medical doctor. Dionah is married to Steve Killgore and has two children named Nicholas Steven Killgore (born 2005) and Alexis Lenah Killgore (born 2011).  Dionah also works for Provident Financial Management in Los Angeles, California.  Charles is single and does entertainment industry payroll in Los Angeles, California.  Clint is married to Crystal Hemmerling and lives and works in Palm Springs with his wife and two children named Aaliyah Mariee Hemmerling Borromeo and Christian Edward Hemmerling Borromeo.  Evelyn, Gerry and Dionah all reside in metropolitan Los Angeles, California.  Evelyn has since married Kevin Anthony Cruz (born 1959) in 2002, and she has a staffing company known as DCC (“Dionah, Charles, Clint”) Staffing Services and Ancestral Home Healthcare with 140 employees and offices in metropolitan Los Angeles and Palm Springs, California.  AHH provides hospice care for patients within the patient’s own home.

Rosario (my “Tita Charing”) and Luz (my “Tita Luching”) were both Augustinian nuns educated in Belgium and returned to the Philippines. Rosario was both a Mother Superior & Catholic School Principal while Luz was a Dentist.

Rosario Rallos Borromeo (November 5, 1905 – October 17, 1988) was born in Cebu City and took her vows as a Nun in Belgium on March 12, 1934, after having studied in Belgium for three years (from 1931 to 1934). She returned to the Philippines as merely the second Filipina Nun or Missionary Sister of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Prior to this, they had all been Belgian Sisters serving in the Philippines. Rosario took the religious name of “Sister Marie Andrés,” naming herself after her assassinated father Judge Andrés Borromeo y Reynes (1880-1923). She served as a Teacher and ultimately as an Administrator (School Principal and Mother Superior) in Roman Catholic schools in the Philippine cities of Tagudin (Ilocos Sur on Luzon), Manila (St. Theresa’s School), Carcar (St. Theresa’s School in Cebu Province), Lubuagan (La Union Province), Bauang (La Union Province), Tubao and Baguio (Mountain Province on Luzon) from 1934 to 1964. She was then engaged in the Social Apostolate in Mandaue, Cebu from 1967 to 1972 and finally retired at the Queen of Peace Convent in Quezon City, Luzon in 1977. She was the first Filipina of her congregation to celebrate a Jubilee of 50 years of service in 1984.

Luz Caricia Rallos Borromeo (May 6, 1908 – October 19, 1983) was born in the city of Tagbilaran on the Island of Bohol, where my maternal grandfather was serving as a Judge at that time. She took her vows as a Nun in Belgium on May 12, 1938. Upon her return to the Philippines, she served as a Missionary Sister of the Immaculate Heart of Mary in the Missions of Tagudin, Tondo & Silang (Ilocos Sur Province on Luzon), Baguio (Holy Family), Tubao & Cebu City (St. Theresa’s College), Balamban, Manila (St. Theresa’s College), Pandacan, Quezon City (de Meester), Pugo & Mandaue (Cebu Province) and finally at Baguio once again until she died.

My aunt “Tita Nining” Fé Antonieta Margarita Rallos Borromeo Querouz was married to Agripino (“Tito Pino”) Galo Querouz. Tita Nining served as a Director of the Borromeo Bros. Estate, Inc. from the death of Tito Diding (1948) until 1965. She and Tito Pino had four children, being my first cousins Marylynn Borromeo Querouz, Achilles Borromeo Querouz, Fé Angelique Borromeo Querouz and Andrés Filomeno Borromeo Querouz.

My cousin Marylynn (“Mars”) is a retired Occupational Therapist who used to work at the Makati Medical Center in metropolitan Manila. Mars has one son, Joseph Ken Querouz Delano. They both reside in San Pedro, Laguna Province (Island of Luzon). Mars (born in 1943) was a pioneer among occupational therapists in the Philippines. She was among the second batch of OT graduates from the University of the Philippines, and her name is featured in numerous OT textbooks. In spite of being highly qualified, Mars specifically chose not to emigrate from the Philippines and to stay physically close to her mother and extended family.  My Tita Nining had stillborn twins in 1944.

My cousin Achilles (“Boy” or “Boy Ike”) once served as a commissioned officer in the Philippine Constabulary, similar to the National Guard. Achilles rose through the ranks, and had tours of duty in Cebu, Leyte and Samar. He is married to Paulita Bonghanoy Querouz. Boy has six children: Achilles (“Bambi”) Andrew Angelo Bonghanoy Querouz (June 9, 1971 – January 30, 2013), Achilles (“Aichel”) Andrés Aldous Bonghanoy Querouz, Faye Pauleen (“Chinky”) Bonghanoy Querouz, April Estrada Querouz, Achelle-Liza (“Bing Bing”) Estrada Querouz and Abigail Estrada Querouz. Bambi is married to Alma Grande Querouz, has two children named Ina and Andrew and lives in Manila, where he works in the aircraft industry. Aichel is married to Charmaine Espiritu Querouz and they now reside in Cebu City with their baby daughter Isabella Sydney (born on December 30, 2008).  Aichel is an information systems professional.

Chinky is single and manages a McDonald’s Restaurant in Perth, Western Australia. April is single and works as a school teacher in Maasin, Leyte. Bing Bing is single and works as a nurse, also in Maasin, Leyte. Abigail is studying to be a nurse in Cebu.

My cousin Fé Angelique (“Baby” or “Day”) graduated from USC (the University of San Carlos Borromeo in Cebu City) and went into mass media and broadcasting, including time spent at RMN-IBC Channel 13 Cebu. She then obtained an MBA from AIM (the Asian Institute of Management in Makati), went into the tourism industry and became the General Manager of a branch of a large travel & toursim company in Piñas and managed their Los Baños branch servicing the travel requirements of a leading international bank based in Manila. She remained there until she sacrificed her professional career so that she could care for her mother (my Tita Nining) until Tita Nining passed away in April 2006. Baby has one son named Marcus Aurelius (“Macky”) Querouz Lagan. Both Baby and Macky reside in San Pedro, Laguna Province (Island of Luzon).  Macky is married and has one child named Aureli Querouz (born March 12, 2014).

My cousin Andrés (“Andy” or “Boyito”) is a retired Ground Services Instructor from the National Airport in Sharjah, the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.).  Andy started and runs the “Borromeo Family” Group on both and on, which now have 972 and 5,000 family members (cousins up to the 19th degree) from all over the world, respectively.

Andy is married to Susan Baldoza Querouz and they have four children: Andrés (“Andrew”) Baldoza Querouz, Rosalia (“Roxy”) Baldoza Querouz, Maria Isadora (“Mayet”) Baldoza Querouz and Francis Baldoza Querouz. Andrew married and moved back to the Philippines, while the three other children reside in Sharjah, the United Arab Emirates.  Andy now lives and works in Muscat City in Oman, while Roxy is in British Columbia, Canada and Mayet works for a pet grooming shop in the UAE.

My uncle Jesus Edmundo Rallos Borromeo (born on May 18, 1917) died as a very young child in 1919.

My aunt “Tita Biyay” Maria Benita Borromeo Atega was married to “Tito Dodong’ Lieutenant Colonel Leonil Torralba Atega. Tito Dodong served during the Second World War, and was one of many Filipino and American soldiers who partook in the infamous “Death March” on Bataan. After escaping Japanese captivity, he fought against the Japanese occupation in the Philippine resistance. After the war, he became a general construction contractor. Tita Biyay served as a Director of the Borromeo Bros. Estate, Inc. from 1965 until her death in 2006.  Tita Biyay and Tito Dodong had three children, being my first cousins Maria Anunciacion Borromeo Atega, Socorro Dorothea Natividad Borromeo Atega and Vicente Francisco José Atega.

My cousin Anunciacion (“Anon”) Borromeo Atega worked as a preschool teacher for a Roman Catholic School in West Orange, New Jersey from 1989 until her retirement in 2010; she is single and has no children. Before emigrating to the USA in 1989, she held an administrative position with the Philippine subsidiary of Caterpillar Tractor (Usiphil, Inc.) in Manila.

My cousin Socorro (“Baging” or “Cor”) is an independent landscape architect in Cebu City. She graduated with a Master’s Degree in Landscape Architecture from Harvard University in Boston, and founded what became the largest independent landscape architectural firm in the Philippines outside of Manila.  Baging has two children: Maria Christina (“Christine”) Paula Atega Tan Ugang and Matthew (“Matt”) Atega Tan. Christine has two children, Wyne Paolo Tan Ugang and Angelica (“Leica”) Tan Ugang.  Matt is married to Kristine Bitong Minzero from Rizal Province, and they have one daughter named Denise Sophia Tan.

My cousin Vicente (“Loloi”) retired from his job as a senior provincial executive for Philippine Airlines in the Cebu-Mactan International Airport, where he worked for 30 years.  He is married to Angelie Alice Rivera Ynclino Atega.

This completes all of the lines of my Borromean first cousins.

The Rallos Family of Carmen City, Cebu Province (the Philippines)

What follows is the genealogy and history of the extended family of my maternal grandmother, Anunciacion “Anon” Bonjoc Rallos de Borromeo (1885-1938). The Rallos family of Cebu City, the Philippines comes from the neighboring city of Carmen, also located on the island of Cebu. Family members reside in the Philippines, the USA (the states of Hawaii, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Illinois and Massachusetts), New Zealand (the North Island) and México. The leader of the family was my great grandfather Filomeno Rallos (1859-1901), who served as the Mayor of the City of Carmen from 1898 until his untimely death in 1901. This the the family whence my maternal grandmother Anunciacion “Anon” Rallos de Borromeo (1885-1938) came. By 1890, the Rallos family was one of sixty (60) prominent Cebuano families in the Spanish Crown Colony of the Philippine Islands (“Las Islas Filipinas” in Spanish). Cebuanos comprised roughly one out of every four Filipinos, being concentrated mainly on the islands of Cebu, Negros, Bohol and Mindanao. Of the 60 prominent families, 38 were either mostly of Chinese or Chinese-Mestizo extraction, and 22 were of Spanish or Spanish-Mestizo extraction. Borromeo, Galan, Mercado, Noel, Osmeña, Reynes, Roa, Sotto, Uy Herrera and Veloso were all among those families with primarily a Chinese-Mestizo ethnic composition. This would mean that at least 50% of their ancestry came from Mainland China, with the rest coming from the Philippines and Europe. Cabrera, Gorordo, Rallos and Teves were among those families with a primarily Spanish (Español)-Mestizo ethnic background. In their case, at least 50% of their ancestry came from Spain, with the rest coming from the Philippines and Mainland China. To this very day, the Rallos family of Cebu and Carmen Cities has very strong familial and commercial ties to Latin America, specifically to Mexico and formerly to Venezuela. The Philippines and Spanish Latin America (all of Continental Latin America save Portuguese Brazil, British Guyana, British Belize, French Guiana and Dutch Suriname) were all once colonies of the Spanish Crown. The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation colonized Venezuela (called “Kleinvenedig,” or “Little Venice” in German) in 1528, but unfortunately sold it to Spain in 1566. My great-grandfather Filomeno Rallos (1859-1901) was assassinated in 1901, because he ran afoul with the so-called “Filipino nationalists.” Filipino nationalism grew under the leadership of the Free and Accepted Mason José Rizal from 1860 onward. Most so-called Filipino “nationalists” and most Free and Accepted Masons were (and are) unfortunately opposed both to the Spanish Crown (and to all monarchies) and to the Roman Catholic Church (specifically to Jesus Christ). The Spanish Crown and the Roman Catholic Church worked hand-in-hand in the administration of all Spanish colonies around the world. To this very day, the King of Spain (now Juan Carlos) is the head of the conservative Roman Catholic fraternity known as “Opus Dei,” or “God’s Work” in English. So-called and self-styled Filipino “nationalists” chose to ally themselves both with Free and Accepted Masonry (which has been scrictly forbidden to Roman Catholics by Pope Leo XIII and every Pontiff since – a ban which exists within many Protestant denominations as well) and with the Aglipayan, or Philippine “indepdendent” Church. This largest of Philippine Protestant denominations was founded after American missionaries came to the Philippines in 1898. Outwardly, this church is very similar to the Roman Catholic Church, except that it allows a married priesthood. The younger brother of Filomeno Rallos, named Florentino Rallos, was the Mayor of Cebu City from 1899 until 1908 (a term of 9 years). Acting directly against the ruling of his Pope, his Church and his God, he became both a Free and Accepted Mason and a political ally of the Aglipayan Church. In 1903, Florentino Rallos would introduce Free and Accepted Masonry to his new nephew (by marriage to his neice Anunciacion Rallos) Andrés Borromeo y Reynes (1880-1923), who was to become one of the most famous and prominent provincial judges in the history of the Philippines.

Through the connection with my maternal grandfather Andrés Borromeo y Reynes, all of the young educated and professional men in the Borromeo clan sadly became Free and Accepted Masons in the Cebu Lodge.  By the time Andrés Borromeo realized that this meant something very bad, it was far too late. He began his opposition of the corrupt Quezon Partido Nacionalista government in 1915.  By 1923 Andrés Borromeo had cost Manuel Luis Quezon political control of Surigao and Agusan provinces, and threatened him on the insular level with his pending appointment to the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands.  Judge Andrés Borromeo y Reynes (popularly known as “The Fighting Judge”) gave his life fighting for an independent judiciary which was trying in vain to prevent election fraud by the corrupt and ruling Partido Nacionalista.  The result was a profoundly corrupt Philippine Commonwealth government by 1935.

Rallos Genealogy

First Generation

The Mayor of Carmen City (1898-1901), Cebu Filomeno Rallos (1859-1901) was married to Maxima Bonjoc de Rallos (1860-1944) had the following children:

1) Juanito Rallos y Bonjoc (1884)

2) Anunciacion Rallos y Bonjoc (1885-1938) married to Judge Andrés Reynes Borromeo (my maternal grandparents).

2) Mauricio Rallos y Bonjoc

3) Josefa Rallos y Bonjoc married to a Villamor

4) Encarnacion Rallos y Bonjoc married to a Villamor

5) Felisa Rallos y Bonjoc married to a Malazarte

The Mayor of Cebu City (1899-1908), Florentino Rallos (1860) was married to Maria Fadullon de Rallos had the following children:

1) Carmen Rallos y Fadullon married to Senator Filemon Sotto

2) Concepcion Rallos y Fadullon married first to a Teves and then to a Camara (this branch of the family has ties to Latin America) Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Generations Line of Filomeno (First Generation)

1) Juanito Rallos y Bonjoc (1884) and wife (Second Generation):

1) Vivencio Rallos (Third Generation)

2) Juan Rallos (Third Generation)

2) Anunciacion Rallos y Bonjoc (March 25, 1885 – July 30, 1938, Second Generation) and Judge of the Court of First Instance of Surigao and Agusan (1914-1923) Andrés Borromeo y Reynes (November 10, 1880 – January 3, 1923) married in 1903 had the following children:

1) Mechanical Engineer Andrés Buenaventura Rallos Borromeo Jr (July 14, 1904 – May 3, 1948, Third Generation): “Pensionado” to MIT in Boston (1924-1928) and Marie Morrow Paterno (1909-1979):

1) Edmond Morrow Borromeo (June 2, 1942 – August 25, 1995, Fourth Generation) and Evelyn Gonzaga Borromeo-Cruz (July 31, 1951): 5 children of the Fifth Generation (4 of whom are married) and 7 grandchildren of the Sixth Generation. Evelyn and her new husband Kevin Anthony Cruz (born 1959) reside near Los Angeles, California (USA). Edmond’s eldest son Edmond Gerard “Gerry” Paras Borromeo (March 29, 1968) and wife Josephine Nucom To Borromeo (July 10, 1968) reside with their two children in the same area. Edmond’s daughter Eileen Borromeo (April 7, 1970) resides with her husband and their two children near Sacramento, California. Both Gerry and Eileen are Edmond’s children by his first wife Leila Paras (born June 29, 1938 and since deceased), from whom he was divorced. Leila resides with Eileen and her family. Evelyn’s daughter Dionah Gonzaga Borromeo Killgore resides with her husband Steve Killgore and their children Nicholas Steven Killgore (born 2005) and Alexis Lenah Killgore (born 2011) near Los Angeles.  Both Josephine and Dionah work for the Provident Financial Management Division of American Express Tax & Business Services, Inc. in Los Angeles, California.  I was with Provident in New York City before moving to New Mexico. Charles Gonzaga Borromeo is the elder son of Edmond and Evelyn, who lives near Los Angeles and is single – he does entertainment industry payroll.  Clint Gonzaga Borromeo is the younger son of Edmond and Evelyn, who lives and works in Palm Springs, California with his wife Crystal Hemmerling Borromeo and their two children named Aaliyah Mariee Hemmerling Borromeo and Christian Edward Hemmerling Borromeo.

2) Buenaventura Rallos Borromeo (Third Generation): July 14, 1904 – July 14, 1914 (stillborn).

3) Sister Rosario Rallos Borromeo (Third Generation): Augustinian Nun educated in Belgium (November 8, 1905 – October 16, 1988).

4) Sister Luz Caricia Rallos Borromeo (Third Generation): Augustinian Nun educated in Belgium (May 6, 1908 – October 19, 1983).

5) Fé Antonieta Margarita Rallos Borromeo (Third Generation; June 1912 – April 2006) married to Agripino Galo Querouz (1905 – 1973):

1) Marylynn Borromeo Querouz (1943; Fourth Generation, resides in San Pedro, Laguna, the Philippines): 1 son of the Fifth Generation(Joseph Ken Querouz Delano, who lives in San Pedro, Laguna, the Philippines).

2 and 3) Stillborn twin boys (1944)

4) Achilles Andrés Abdon Borromeo Querouz (1945; Fourth Generation, resides in Cebu City) married to Paula Bonghanoy Querouz: 6 children of the Fifth Generation (Bambi, Achilles, Faye Pauleen, April, Achelle-Liza and Abigail) and 2 grandchildren of the Sixth Generation. Bambi, his wife and their two children reside in Metro Manila.  Achilles (“Ikel”) and his wife reside in Melbourne, Australia. Faye Pauleen (“Chinky”) resides in Perth, Australia. April and Achelle-Liza (“Bing Bing”) both live in Maasin, Leyte. Abigail is studying to be a nurse in Cebu.

5) Fé Angelique Borromeo Querouz (1947; Fourth Generation, resides in San Pedro, Laguna, the Philippines): 1 son of the Fifth Generation: Marcus Aurelius “Macky” Querouz Lagan, who lives in San Pedro, Laguna, the Philippines).  Macky is married and has one child named Aureli Querouz (born March 12, 2014).

6) Andrés Filomeno Borromeo Querouz (1950; Fourth Generation): 4 children of the Fifth Generation and 2 granddaughters of the Sixth Generation. Andrés (“Andy”), his wife Susan Baldoza Querouz and their children Roxanne “Roxy” Baldoza Querouz, Maria “Mayet” Baldoza Querouz and Francis Baldoza Querouz reside in Oman, the Philippines and Canada.

6) Jesus Edmundo Rallos Borromeo (Third Generation): 1917 – 1919.

7) Maria Benita Rallos Borromeo (1919 – 2006; Third Generation) married to Lieutenant Colonel Leonil Torralba Atega (July 1, 1918 – January 14, 1995).

1) Maria Anunciacion Victoria Borromeo Atega (July 21, 1947; Fourth Generation): resides in New Jersey (USA).

2) Dorothea Socorro Natividad Borromeo Atega (September 3, 1951; Fourth Generation): 2 children of the Fifth Generation (one of whom administers this website) and 2 grandchildren of the Sixth Generation. Socorro (“Baging”) resides in Cebu City along with her daughter Christine (born 1978) and Christine’s two children Paolo and Angelica (“Leica”). Baging’s son Matthew Borromeo Atega Tan (adminstrator of this website; born 1983) is married to Kristine Bitong Minzero, they have a daughter named Denise Sophia (born September 23, 2012) and they reside in New Jersey (USA).

3) Vicente Francisco José Borromeo Atega (Fourth Generation; born June 4, 1953): married to Alice Rivera Ynclino Atega (born 1954), both of whom reside in Cebu City. They have no children.

8) Hermenegilda Amor Victoria Rallos Borromeo (Third Generation – May 31, 1922 to August 26, 2015) married to Wilfried Erich Rudolph Nonnenkamp: reside in Arizona (USA):

1) Marc Evan Borromeo Nonnenkamp (Fourth Generation, born June 15, 1962): the author of this website, of, and of 11 published books (3 on the German car company Volkswagen, 5 about the German & Austrian Navies, 2 on Scale Model Toy Cars such as Corgi & Lesney Matchbox, and one book about the Borromeo family of Cebu City), resides in New Mexico (USA).

3) Mauricio Rallos y Bonjoc and wife (Second Generation):

1) Asuncion Rallos Pintor (Third Generation): no issue.

2) Filomeno Rallos Jr (Third Generation):

1) Filomeno Rallos 3rd (Fourth Generation)

3) Soledad Rallos Baylosis (Third Generation): lives in Daly City, California (USA).

1) Vicentita Rallos Baylosis (Fourth Generation): lives in Daly City, California (USA).

2) Silvestre Rallos Baylosis (Fourth Generation): lives in Daly City, California (USA).

3) Mario Rallos Baylosis (Fourth Generation): lives in Daly City, California (USA).

4) Felipe Rallos: no issue (Third Generation).

5) Primitiva Rallos: no issue (Third Generation).

6) Leopoldo Rallos: no issue (Third Generation).

4) Josefa Rallos y Bonjoc (Second Generation) and husband (Villamor family):

1) Emilia Rallos Villamor Enriquez: no issue (Third Generation).

2) Filomeno Rallos Villamor: no issue (Third Generation).

3) Silvestra Bontia Rallos Villamor: no issue (Third Generation).

4) Pedro Rallos Villamor: no issue (Third Generation).

5) Dominador Rallos Villamor: no issue (Third Generation).

6) Carmen Rallos Villamor Buot: no issue (Third Generation).

7) Concepcion Rallos Villamor Daffon: no issue (Third Generation).

8) Milquiades Rallos Villamor: no issue (Third Generation).

9) Eusebia Rallos Villamor Degiulino (Third Generation).

1) Gloria Villamor Degiulino Torralba (Fourth Generation).

2) Teresa Villamor Degiulino Ruiz (Fourth Generation).

3) Providencia Villamor Degiulino Javier (Fourth Generation).

4) Elenterio Villamor Degiulino Sr (Fourth Generation): 1 son of the Fifth Generation.

5) José Villamor Degiulino (Fourth Generation).

6) Nazareno Villamor Degiulino (Fourth Generation).

5) Encarnacion Rallos y Bonjoc and husband (Second Generation, also a Villamor):

1) Leonor Rallos Villamor: no issue (Third Generation).

2) Carmelo Rallos Villamor: no issue (Third Generation).

3) Vicenta Rallos Villamor Villas (Third Generation).

4) Luisa Rallos Villamor Raffanan (Third Generation).

5) Francisca Rallos Villamor (Third Generation).

6) Jovita Rallos Villamor Bontia (Third Generation).

7) Milagros Rallos Villamor (Third Generation) and Kenneth Young: resides in Pearl City, Hawaii (USA) since 1971:

  1. Coleen Villamor Young (Fourth      Generation): married and has 2 children of the Fifth Generation (Hawaii,      USA).
  2. Madelin Villamor Young      (Hawaii, USA): married to a doctor, and has 4 children of the Fifth      Generation (Hawaii, USA).

8) Lucy Rallos Villamor (Third Generation).

9) Nestor Rallos Villamor (Third Generation).

10) Teresita Rallos Villamor Mendoza (Third Generation).

11) Flordeliz Rallos Villamor Pozon (Third Generation).

6) Felisa Rallos y Bonjoc (Second Generation) and husband (Malazarte family):

1) Enrique Rallos Malazarte (Third Generation).

2) Antonia Rallos Malazarte Mayol (Third Generation).

3) Mercedes Rallos Malazarte Butaslak: no issue (Third Generation).

4) Pedro Rallos Malazarte (Third Generation).

5) Lourdes Rallos Malazarte: no issue (Third Generation).

6) Romeo Rallos Malazarte (Third Generation).

Line of Florentino (First Generation):

1) Carmen Rallos y Fadullon (Second Generation) and Cebu Senator Filomeno Sotto: no issue. Filemon Sotto and his newspaper-publisher brother were avid political opponents of my maternal grandfather Judge Andrés Borromeo y Reynes (1880-1923). Sotto was thus a political follower of first Philippine President Manuel Luis Quezon, who was the Philippine Head of State from 1935 until the Japanese invasion in December 1941.

2) Concepcion Rallos y Fadullon (Second Generation) and first husband (Teves family):

    1. Pilar Rallos Teves       (Third Generation): one daughter of the Fourth Generation(Corazon)       married to Virginio Villamor, the ex-Mayor of Carmen, Cebu.
    2. Florentino Rallos       Teves (Third Generation):
    1. José “Pipito” Rallos       Teves (Fourth Generation)
    2. Francisco “Francois”       Rallos Teves (Fourth Generation)
    3. Petronila “Nellie”       Rallos Teves (Fourth Generation)
    4. Milagros “Mila” Rallos       Teves (Fourth Generation)
    5. Marichu Rallos Teves       (Fourth Generation)
    6. Florentino “Junior”       Rallos Teves (Fourth Generation)

3) Dulce Rallos Teves Kiamko (Third Generation):

1) Rosario „Charito” Teves Kiamko (Fourth Generation): no issue: Chesapeake, Virginia (USA).

4) Dolores Rallos Teves Arcenas (Third Generation):

    1. Dolores “Lori” Teves       Arcenas (Fourth Generation)
    2. Mariano “Randy” Teves       Arcenas (Fourth Generation)
    3. Daisey “Ann” Teves       Arcenas (Fourth Generation)
    4. Virginia “Jinny” Teves       Arcenas (Fourth Generation)
    5. Bernadette “Bernie”       Teves Arcensas (Fourth Generation): Married, living in Sacramento,       California (USA).

2) Concepcion Rallos y Fadullon (Second Generation) and second husband (Camara family):

5) Maria Rallos Camara Gumban (Third Generation): 2 children of the Fourth Generation and more grandchildren of the Sixth Generation: Cebu City, Philippines.

6) Benjamin Rallos Camara (Third Generation): 7 children of the Fourth Generation and 4 grandchildren of the Fifth Generation. Retired in San José, California (USA).

7) Doctor Jesus Rallos Camara (Third Generation): no issue (1922-2011).

8) Carmen Rallos Camara Verduzco (Third Generation): no issue. Remarried widow of Miguel Verduzco, who up until his untimely death by heart attack in 2000 was President and Chief Executive Officer of Atisa Atkins, S.A. de C.V. (a Mexican steel engineering firm with business interests in Mexico, Venezuela, the USA and the Philippines).

9) Belen Rallos Camara Brown (Third Generation): Chicago, Illinois (USA).

1) Eileen Camara Brown (Fourth Generation): 4 daughters.

2) Sharon Camara Brown (Fourth Generation): 2 children.

3) 54 illegitimate children (Second Generation). These numerous offspring were of the generation of my grandparents, and today have very many descendants in the Philippines and in New Zealand.

Note: Branch number 2 (heirs of Concepcion Rallos Camara) is the part of the family which used to own the Mexican business conglomerate. It is still headquartered in México City and was formerly involved in steel sales (Latin America), but is still active in real estate (México and the USA) and cement production (in Carmen City, Cebu Province, the Philippines).

The Rallos clan has 213 members, 122 of whom are living.

List of Literary Sources

1.)  The United States and the Philippines (by D.R. Williams)

2.)  The Philippines – A Study in National Development (by Joseph Ralston Hayden)

3.)  First Malayan Republic – The Story of the Philippines (by Justice George Arthur Malcolm)

4.)  The White Apos (by Frank Lawrence Jenista): a book about the American colonial administration of the non-Christian mountain tribes of Northern Luzon.

5.)  Philippine Colonial Democracy (Edited by Ruby R. Paredes)

6.)  In Our Image: America’s Empire in the Philippines (by Stanley Karnow): a 494-page book about the history of the Philippines from Spanish colonization in 1521 to the Presidency of Corazon Cojuangco Aquino in the 1980s.  Many interesting facts are listed here about the entire period of Philippine history going back to the 16th century.

7.) Insight Guides Philippines – published by the Discovery Channel and by APA Publications (London, England, UK – 2005 Edition).

8.) Lonely Planet Philippines – 7000 Islands, Endless Possibilities (8th Edition – published in Australia in June 2003).

9.) Filipinos: Forgotten Asian Americans – A Pictorial Essay (1763 – Circa 1963) by Fred Cordova.  Copyright 1983 by “Demonstration Project for Asian Americans.”  Andres Buenaventura “Diding” Rallos Borromeo (1904-1948) featured on page 8 of the book in a photo of the “Jeffersonian 16” taken on September 7, 1924 in Seattle, Washington.  They were Philippine government “Pensionados” who arrived aboard the steam ship “S/S President Jefferson.”  Pensionados were educated young Filipinos who were sent to the USA to earn college degrees.

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